2:25 PM 9/14/2018 – Canaris made the United States one of Abwehr’s primary targets even before America’s entry into the conflict. By 1942, German agents were operating from within all of America’s top armaments manufacturers.

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“Canaris made the United States one of Abwehr’s primary targets even before America’s entry into the conflict. By 1942, German agents were operating from within all of America’s top armaments manufacturers. Abwehr scored perhaps its greatest victories in the area of industrial espionage, as agents managed to steal the blueprint for every major American airplane produced for the war effort.”

Read more: http://www.faqs.org/espionage/A-An/Abwehr.html#ixzz5R69JyswO

Abwehr –

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█ ADRIENNE WILMOTH LERNER

The Abwehr was the German military intelligence organization from 1866 to 1944. The organization predates the emergence of Germany itself, and was founded to gather intelligence information for the Prussian government during a war with neighboring Austria. After initial successes, the organization was expanded during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Under the direction of Wilhelm Stieber, Abwehr located, infiltrated, and reported on French defensive positions and operations. The Prussians claimed victory, largely because of the success of Abwehr agents. In 1871, Prussia united with other independent German states to form the nation of Germany. The new country adopted much of the former Prussian government and military structure, including the Abwehr.

The intelligence agency was again tested at the out-break of World War I in 1914. German agents worked to pinpoint the location and strength of the Allied forces, helping the German forces to invade and progress through northern France before stalemated trench warfare began. New military technology changed the nature of espionage. Agency director Walther Nicolai recognized the need for a modernized intelligence force and reorganized the department to include experts in wire tapping, munitions manufacturing, shipping, and encryption. The agency tapped enemy communications wires, intercepting and deciphering Allied dispatches with measured accomplishment. The Abwehr sent several agents to spy on the manufacture of poison gas in France, and tracked munitions production and shipping in Britain. The organization sent saboteurs to disrupt the shipment of arms from America to Allied forces in Europe. Several ships were sunk in transit after being identified by agents as smuggling arms. German agents, often acting on information collected by Abwehr, set fire to several American weapons factories and storage facilities. While the Abwehr was generally successful, the loss of the German codebook to British intelligence somewhat undermined the agency’s ultimate efficacyduring the war.

After World War I, the Abwehr ceased operation under the terms of the Versailles Treaty. The intelligence service was re-established in 1921. When the Nazis gained control of Germany in the 1930s, some members of the intelligence agency began to spy on their own government. The Nazis created a separate intelligence organization, the Sicherheitsdienst , or Security Service, headed by Reinhard Heydrich. In 1935, the new Abwehr director, Wilhelm Canaris, and Heydrich reached an agreement about the roles of each agency, but both trained and maintained their own espionage forces. Canaris reorganized the Abwehr into three branches: espionage, counter-espionage, and saboteurs. He appointed three distinguished Abwehr agents to lead the branches, but only on condition that they were not members of the Nazi party. This aroused the suspicion of rival Security Service. The two agencies came into conflict on several occasions, and as Heydrich gained power, he persuaded the government to investigate members of the Abwehr for espionage and treason. Several members of the Abwehr were arrested in 1939. Though a handful of the agency’s highest ranking officials were active as double-agents or as members of the Resistance, the organization as a whole continued its espionage operations on behalf of the German government.

At the outbreak of World War II, Abwehr resumed operations similar to those carried out during World War I. The agency was in charge of tracking troops and munitions transports, tapping wires and intercepting radio messages, and infiltrating foreign intelligence and military units. Abwehr placed two operatives inside the British intelligence agency for two years, and developed a highly successful encryption device called the Enigma machine. Agents tracked and monitored various resistance movements in occupied Europe, and even sabotaged military and government strongholds behind Allied lines.

Canaris made the United States one of Abwehr’s primary targets even before America’s entry into the conflict. By 1942, German agents were operating from within all of America’s top armaments manufacturers. Abwehr scored perhaps its greatest victories in the area of industrial espionage, as agents managed to steal the blueprint for every major American airplane produced for the war effort.

One of the Abwehr’s responsibilities during World War II was the extraction of information from prisoners of war. While Abwehr agents remained largely in control of seeking strategic information from British, French, and American prisoners, the Nazi government issued a special directive to various branches of the military regarding Russian prisoners of war. The Commissar Order, as it became known, instructed the Army to handle Russian prisoners as harshly as they deemed necessary for the retrieval of military information. At one time, German concentration camps held more that 1.5 million Russian prisoners. Canaris himself raised several objections to this policy, largely on the grounds that it undermined the authority and efficacy of his agency and could cripple the German war effort.

In 1944, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police, assumed control of Abwehr after an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and several other high ranking Nazi officials. Himmler suspected that the plot was the work of agents inside the government, most especially the Abwehr. The July Plot also exposed the work of those Abwehr agents who had intentionally leaked sensitive information to the Allies. Several agents, including Canaris, were charged with treason and executed. The Abwehr was then dissolved.

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Canaris – the Life and Death of Hitler’s Spymaster, Michael Mueller
 

mikenova shared this story from Military History Blog on the Web.

Canaris – the Life and Death of Hitler’s Spymaster, Michael Mueller

Admiral Wilhelm Canaris began his military career in the Imperial German Navy, and served on the cruiser Dresden and in U-boats. He is most famous as the head of the Abwehr, the German Army’s military intelligence service. This made him one of the most senior figures in Nazi Germany, but his actions as head of the Abwehr were unusual to say the least!

Canaris is an intriguing character. Some of his closest associates within the Abwehr were leaders of the German resistance to Hitler – in particular Hans Oster and Hans Gisevius, but at the same time he was on good terms with Heydrich (despite the normal political infighting between parts of the Nazi machine), and appears to have had a good working relationship with Himmler. His organisation was less tainted by war crimes than most parts of the German military, but did take part in some on the Eastern Front. The opponents of the Nazis were generally restricted to the upper reaches of the organisation (and didn’t include everyone at that level), and most members of the Abwehr attempted to do their jobs loyally (if not always terribly effectively).  Canaris was directly responsible for saving a number of Jews, often by giving them jobs within the Abwehr, and then moving them out of Nazi controlled territory.

It is fair to say that senior German officers made very bad plotters. In 1938-40 they always seeming to be waiting for someone else’s actions, and as a result never actually acted. When they did finally move against Hitler in 1944 the plot was badly thought out, and unravelled in a day. To make things worse they kept detailed notes of what they were doing, and kept many of them in official buildings! Canaris was no better than the rest – his diaries, the documents that triggered his execution in the last weeks of the war, were actually found in a safe in a bunker in an Abwehr office within the OKW complex at Zossen, the home of the German Army High Command during the Second World War. Canaris was clearly supportive of the first wave of plots, although like the Generals seems to have felt that it was someone else’s task to actually carry out the plots. In 1944 he was probably aware of what was going on, but not involved.

Canaris’s early career was just as interesting. He entered the Imperial German Navy, and served on the cruiser Dresden, taking part in her voyages in the Pacific and Atlantic early in the First World War, fighting at the battles of Coronel and the Falklands, and escaping from internment in Chile. He then went on to command U-boats, and was at sea in that role when the German naval mutinies of 1918 began the fall of the Kaiser’s regime. In the post-war period he was a member of the right-wing opposition to the Weimar Republic, despite staying within the Navy. He helped shield some of the most notorious criminals of that period, and eventually had to go to sea to avoid more controversy. It was this grounding in post-war politics that brought him to the Abwehr, and at least initially made him a support of the new Nazi regime (probably).

This is an interesting biography of a most unusual man. We get a great deal of information on what Canaris did, but not a lot on his motives. As the author explains at the start, we simply don’t have the sources to access Canaris’s motives – there are no personal diaries, very few letters, and even the professional diaries only survive in fragments. The author has done a good job of ignoring the large scale post-war speculation about Canaris, which tended to portray him as one of the ‘good Germans’, a dedicated anti-Nazi. The true picture is clearly more complex, although it is still remarkable that someone who was clearly involved in plots against his own government could serve as head of a major intelligence agency for so long.

Part I: Officer of his Majesty
1 – A Naval Cadet from the Ruhr
2 – The Epic Last Voyage of the Dresden
3 – Agent on a Special Mission
4 – U-boat War in the Mediterranean

Part II: The Struggle against the Republic
5 – Servant of Two Masters
6 – The Murderer’s Helpers’ Helper
7 – On the Side of the Putschists
8 – Agent of the Counter-Revolution
9 – Military-Political Secret Missions
10 – The Shadow of the Past

Part III: Rise under the Swastika
11 – Hitler’s Military Intelligence Chief
12 – The Duel with Heydrich
13 – Between Führer, Duce and Caudillo
14 – Ousting the Generals
15 – A Double Game
16 – Between Obedience and Conscience

Part IV: Finis Germaniae
17 – The Will for War
18 – The Madness Unfolds
19 – The War of Extermination – Act One
20 – The Spirit of Zossen
21 – ‘Now There is No Going Back’
22 – Operation Felix

Part V: The Triumph of the Barbarians
23 – The War of Extermination p Act Two
24 – The Struggle for Power with Heydrich
25 – With His Back to the Wall
26 – The Undoing of Canaris

Part VI: Hitler’s Revenge

Author: Michael Mueller
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 288
Publisher: Frontline
Year: 2017 edition of 2007 original

Canaris: The Life and Death of Hitler’s Spymaster (9781473894334): Michael Mueller: Books
 

mikenova shared this story .

Canaris and manhattan project – Google Search
 

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German nuclear weapons program – Wikipedia
 

mikenova shared this story .

The German nuclear weapons project (GermanUranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; English: Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II. The first effort started in April 1939, just months after the discovery of nuclear fission in December 1938, but ended only months later due to the German invasion of Poland, after many notable physicists were drafted into the Wehrmacht.

Abwehr –
 

mikenova shared this story .

█ ADRIENNE WILMOTH LERNER

The Abwehr was the German military intelligence organization from 1866 to 1944. The organization predates the emergence of Germany itself, and was founded to gather intelligence information for the Prussian government during a war with neighboring Austria. After initial successes, the organization was expanded during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Under the direction of Wilhelm Stieber, Abwehr located, infiltrated, and reported on French defensive positions and operations. The Prussians claimed victory, largely because of the success of Abwehr agents. In 1871, Prussia united with other independent German states to form the nation of Germany. The new country adopted much of the former Prussian government and military structure, including the Abwehr.

The intelligence agency was again tested at the out-break of World War I in 1914. German agents worked to pinpoint the location and strength of the Allied forces, helping the German forces to invade and progress through northern France before stalemated trench warfare began. New military technology changed the nature of espionage. Agency director Walther Nicolai recognized the need for a modernizedintelligence force and reorganized the department to include experts in wire tapping, munitions manufacturing, shipping, and encryption. The agency tapped enemy communications wires, intercepting and deciphering Allied dispatches with measured accomplishment. The Abwehr sent several agents to spy on the manufacture of poison gas in France, and tracked munitions production and shipping in Britain. The organization sent saboteurs to disrupt the shipment of arms from America to Allied forces in Europe. Several ships were sunk in transit after being identified by agents as smugglingarms. German agents, often acting on information collected by Abwehr, set fire to several American weapons factories and storage facilities. While the Abwehr was generally successful, the loss of the German codebook to British intelligence somewhat undermined the agency’s ultimate efficacy during the war.

After World War I, the Abwehr ceased operation under the terms of the Versailles Treaty. The intelligence service was re-established in 1921. When the Nazis gained control of Germany in the 1930s, some members of the intelligence agency began to spy on their own government. The Nazis created a separate intelligence organization, the Sicherheitsdienst , or Security Service, headed by Reinhard Heydrich. In 1935, the new Abwehr director, Wilhelm Canaris, and Heydrich reached an agreement about the roles of each agency, but both trained and maintained their own espionage forces. Canaris reorganized the Abwehr into three branches: espionage, counter-espionage, and saboteurs. He appointed three distinguished Abwehr agents to lead the branches, but only on condition that they were not members of the Nazi party. This aroused the suspicion of rival Security Service. The two agencies came into conflict on several occasions, and as Heydrich gained power, he persuaded the government to investigate members of the Abwehr for espionage and treason. Several members of the Abwehr were arrested in 1939. Though a handful of the agency’s highest ranking officials were active as double-agents or as members of the Resistance, the organization as a whole continued its espionage operations on behalf of the German government.

At the outbreak of World War II, Abwehr resumed operations similar to those carried out during World War I. The agency was in charge of tracking troops and munitions transports, tapping wires and intercepting radio messages, and infiltrating foreign intelligence and military units. Abwehr placed two operatives inside the British intelligence agency for two years, and developed a highly successful encryption device called the Enigma machine. Agents tracked and monitored various resistance movements in occupied Europe, and even sabotaged military and government strongholds behind Allied lines.

Canaris made the United States one of Abwehr’s primary targets even before America’s entry into the conflict. By 1942, German agents were operating from within all of America’s top armaments manufacturers. Abwehr scored perhaps its greatest victories in the area of industrial espionage, as agents managed to steal the blueprint for every major American airplane produced for the war effort.

One of the Abwehr’s responsibilities during World War II was the extraction of information from prisoners of war. While Abwehr agents remained largely in control of seeking strategic information from British, French, and American prisoners, the Nazi government issued a special directive to various branches of the military regarding Russian prisoners of war. The Commissar Order, as it became known, instructed the Army to handle Russian prisoners as harshly as they deemed necessary for the retrieval of military information. At one time, German concentration camps held more that 1.5 million Russian prisoners. Canaris himself raised several objections to this policy, largely on the grounds that it undermined the authority and efficacy of his agency and could cripple the German war effort.

In 1944, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police, assumed control of Abwehr after an unsuccessful assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler and several other high ranking Nazi officials. Himmler suspected that the plot was the work of agents inside the government, most especially the Abwehr. The July Plot also exposed the work of those Abwehr agents who had intentionally leaked sensitive information to the Allies. Several agents, including Canaris, were charged with treason and executed. The Abwehr was then dissolved.

New Evidence: Comey Misled Congress
 

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