Crime Analysis as application of Hermeneutics

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Hermeneutics
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crime analysis as application of hermeneutics – Google Search
crime analysis as application of hermeneutics – Google Search
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: FBI, DOJ don’t deserve roles
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Mike Nova’s Shared NewsLinks Review
Hermeneutics
Sun, 15 Jul 2018 16:46:32 -0400

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In a Nutshell

You flip open a fat, zillion-page novel. You leaf through an encyclopedia. You read the tabloid headlines in line at the grocery store. You scroll through your Facebook feed.

When you look at any of these things, you are, in a word, interpreting them. But what’s actually happening when you do this? Sure, you’re breathing, you’re chewing gum, you’re letting your eyes wander toward that foxy individual across the room. But, when you actually work on understanding the words in front of you, what’s the process of how you interpret those texts?

That’s the basic question posed and explored by the school of thought called hermeneutics. Not hemorrhoids. Not Hermione Granger. Hermeneutics.

Hermeneutics is a general theory of how people interpret stuff—and that stuff can be across multiple genres and all manner of speaking and writing. Hermeneutics is less concerned with understanding specific works of poetry or theology or case law or whatever than it is with understanding what it means to understand in general. Totally clear, right?

What are the tools people use to get the gist of whatever thing they’re looking at, whether the Bible or the epics of Homer or Miley Cyrus’ latest single? The method of hermeneutics addresses that question by analyzing the rules that apply to each text, the circumstances that can occur in any one of them, and how people find the meaning in whichever masterpiece they’re looking at.

The hermeneutic philosophers (hermeneutites? Hermeneuticists? Hermenphrodites?) pretty much agree that when you interpret a text, you always do so situated in—cue dramatic music—the hermeneutic circle. Think the Circle of Life, but with stodgy theorists instead of singing animals.

The basic idea is that every interpretation takes place in some location, so every interpretation comes influenced by the specific circumstances of whoever’s doing the interpreting. Quite a few places, usually.

Why? Well, we live in different societies and different cultures. We speak different languages. We come from different traditions. We have different histories. We have different presuppositions and pre-judgments.

In other words, no one of us ever approaches a text from every place or no place. The meaning of your own life and circumstances informs the meaning you find in texts about the lives and circumstances of others. Are we there yet?

Having a perspective means there’s things you see and don’t see. An English-speaker unfamiliar with Russian culture and history, not to mention the whole Christianity thing, won’t be able to see the whole of Crime and Punishment the way Dostoevsky did. However, neither will the contemporary Russian, who is also pretty distant from the world in which Dostoevsky wrote his novel, even if they’re looking out the window at the same sort of icy snow storm you only get in Russia.

And guess what? Even the author has a perspective on her own work. If you’ve written a lot of papers, you’ve probably discovered the benefit of taking time away from a writing project so as to get a little distance and get a more objective view. The hermeneutic philosophers argue that no one can have a purely objective view, free of limits. No one sees the whole perfectly or fully, so no one can completely make sense of the parts. All we can do is go piece by piece—or better yet, arc by arc.

Moving along the hermeneutic circle means you get a better sense of the whole by better understanding the parts, and you get a better sense of the parts by getting a better sense of the whole—the whole of the text and the worlds outside the text from which it came and to which it belongs.

You never get a perfect sense of everything under the sun, however, so there’s no leaving the hermeneutic circle. No, we’re not there yet. Never will be. But think of the circle as a giant pizza to bite through one cheese lump at a time, and that way you can choose to enjoy the ride.

Why Should Readers Care?

Whether you’re reading the news while you sip your coffee, wading through Virgil’s Aeneid for your lit class, responding to another driver who’s honking at you, or reading up on J-Wow’s latest tweets, hermeneutics is there. It always shows up the moment something meaningful is communicated from someone to someone else.

Basically, wherever you find human beings, you find hermeneutics (not that it doesn’t spread into the animal kingdom—how does an antelope interpret a lion’s roar? They run).

So, to study hermeneutics is to study what happens when interpretation happens: what‘s the process by which meaning is understood, what happens to us when we seek to understand our world by interpreting it, why that antelope just knows it’s gotta bolt.

You should care about hermeneutics because it’s something that happens to you every day, and what it shows you is that you’re not some isolated individual thinking about the world in your own way; you’re bound to traditions that have given you ways of perceiving and interpreting, judging and acting, not all of which are you aware of.

Oh, you think your thinking is really your own? Think again! Your rootedness in tradition colors and shapes how you understand and approach the world. But lucky for you, studying hermeneutics will give you a better sense of what your own thinking and acting owe to the languages you speak, the family you come from, the culture in which you live, and the society in which you eat, sleep, think, talk, read, tweet, blog, shmoop, and operate day by day. In a way, it’s all about you!

Why Should Theorists Care?

Sometimes a specific way of interpreting a text is called a “hermeneutic.” Theorists speak of a feminist hermeneutic, or a Marxist hermeneutic, or a classical hermeneutic. The term denotes the angle a person takes to approach a text and the methodology one employs. The term is fitting because hermeneutics, as a general theory of interpretation, underlies all individual hermeneutic tools and tactics.

It’s easy to get locked into one’s preferred hermeneutic, believing it’s the be-all-end-all of how to see the world. The study of hermeneutics can provide the antidote to this temptation. By seeing one’s preferred manner of interpreting as coming from a specific place and rooted in specific traditions, one begins to see that there are more things in the world than your given philosophy can cover.

On top of all those other tools, hermeneutics is a tool in humility. Just the sort of medicine most theorists need. And, to be honest, who hasn’t wanted to humble a theorist?

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Hermeneutics – Wikipedia
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Applications[edit]

Archaeology[edit]

In archaeology, hermeneutics means the interpretation and understanding of material through analysis of possible meanings and social uses.

Proponents argue that interpretation of artifacts is unavoidably hermeneutic because we cannot know for certain the meaning behind them. We can only apply modern values when interpreting. This is most commonly seen in stone tools, where descriptions such as “scraper” can be highly subjective and actually unproven until the development of microwear analysis some thirty years ago.

Opponents argue that a hermeneutic approach is too relativist and that their own interpretations are based on common-sense evaluation.

Architecture[edit]

There are several traditions of architectural scholarship that draw upon the hermeneutics of Heideggerand Gadamer, such as Christian Norberg-Schulz, and Nader El-Bizri in the circles of phenomenology. Lindsay Jones examines the way architecture is received and how that reception changes with time and context (e.g., how a building is interpreted by critics, users, and historians).[51] Dalibor Vesely situates hermeneutics within a critique of the application of overly scientific thinking to architecture.[52] This tradition fits within a critique of the Enlightenment[53] and has also informed design-studio teaching. Adrian Snodgrass sees the study of history and Asian cultures by architects as a hermeneutical encounter with otherness.[54] He also deploys arguments from hermeneutics to explain design as a process of interpretation.[55] Along with Richard Coyne, he extends the argument to the nature of architectural education and design.[56]

Environment[edit]

Environmental hermeneutics applies hermeneutics to environmental issues conceived broadly to subjects including “nature” and “wilderness” (both terms are matters of hermeneutical contention), landscapes, ecosystems, built environments (where it overlaps architectural hermeneutics[57][58] ), inter-species relationships, the relationship of the body to the world, and more.

International relations[edit]

Insofar as hermeneutics is a basis of both critical theory and constitutive theory (both of which have made important inroads into the postpositivist branch of international relations theory and political science), it has been applied to international relations.

Steve Smith refers to hermeneutics as the principal way of grounding a foundationalist yet postpositivist theory of international relations.

Radical postmodernism is an example of a postpositivist yet anti-foundationalist paradigm of international relations.

Law[edit]

Some scholars argue that law and theology are particular forms of hermeneutics because of their need to interpret legal tradition or scriptural texts. Moreover, the problem of interpretation has been central to legal theory since at least the 11th century.

In the Middle Ages and Italian Renaissance, the schools of glossatorescommentatores, and usus modernusdistinguished themselves by their approach to the interpretation of “laws” (mainly Justinian‘s Corpus Juris Civilis). The University of Bologna gave birth to a “legal Renaissance” in the 11th century, when the Corpus Juris Civilis was rediscovered and systematically studied by men such as Irnerius and Johannes Gratian. It was an interpretative Renaissance. Subsequently, these were fully developed by Thomas Aquinas and Alberico Gentili.

Since then, interpretation has always been at the center of legal thought. Friedrich Carl von Savigny and Emilio Betti, among others, made significant contributions to general hermeneutics. Legal interpretivism, most famously Ronald Dworkin‘s, may be seen as a branch of philosophical hermeneutics.

Political philosophy[edit]

Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo and Spanish philosopher Santiago Zabala in their book Hermeneutic Communism, when discussing contemporary capitalist regimes, stated that, “A politics of descriptions does not impose power in order to dominate as a philosophy; rather, it is functional for the continued existence of a society of dominion, which pursues truth in the form of imposition (violence), conservation (realism), and triumph (history).”[59]

Vattimo and Zabala also stated that they view interpretation as anarchy and affirmed that “existence is interpretation” and that “hermeneutics is weak thought.”

Psychoanalysis[edit]

Psychoanalysts have made ample use of hermeneutics since Sigmund Freud first gave birth to their discipline. In 1900 Freud wrote that the title he chose for The Interpretation of Dreams ‘makes plain which of the traditional approaches to the problem of dreams I am inclined to follow…[i.e.] “interpreting” a dream implies assigning a “meaning” to it.’[60]

The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan later extended Freudian hermeneutics into other psychical realms. His early work from the 1930s–50s is particularly influenced by Heidegger, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty‘s hermeneutical phenomenology.[61]

Psychology[edit]

Psychologists and computer scientists have recently become interested in hermeneutics, especially as an alternative to cognitivism.

Hubert Dreyfus‘s critique of conventional artificial intelligence has been influential among psychologists who are interested in hermeneutic approaches to meaning and interpretation, as discussed by philosophers such as Martin Heidegger (cf. Embodied cognition) and Ludwig Wittgenstein(cf. Discursive psychology).

Hermeneutics is also influential in humanistic psychology.[62]

Religion and theology[edit]

The understanding of a theological text depends upon the reader’s particular hermeneutical viewpoint. Some theorists, such as crime analysis as application of hermeneutics – Google Search

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The Faultlines of the Current Ideological Divide – Part 1

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Wilhelm Dilthey’s theory of worldviews was similar to Jaspers’ analysis. … Let’s use Mannheim’s own words to show the contrasts between two conceptions. … to a hermeneutical (interpretative) approach regarding the inquiry, analysis and …. of laziness and productivity enters the realm of criminal and unethical behavior.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: FBI, DOJ don’t deserve roles
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ANALYSIS/OPINION:

Disgraced FBI agent Peter Strzok’s congressional testimony revealed inherent bias, mendacity and corruption within the FBI’s Counterintelligence Division (“Trump says after Strzok hearing that ‘rigged’ Mueller probe is hurting U.S. relations with Russia,” Web, July 13). Mr. Strzok proclaimed that the vulgar and partisan messages with his mistress Lisa Page via FBI smartphones could never create biased investigations. He testified, “And the suggestion that I, in some dark chamber somewhere in the FBI, would somehow cast aside all of these procedures, all of these safeguards, and somehow be able to do this is astounding to me. It simply couldn’t happen.” Yet Mr. Strzok conveniently omitted that these “safeguards” included the former FBI Director James Comey, the now-fired Deputy FBI Director Andrew McCabe, the demoted DOJ official Bruce Ohr and of course, the now-resigned FBI girlfriend-attorney Lisa Page. These people were the checks and balances to which Mr. Strzok alluded. This all suggests something rotten in the Counterintelligence Division.

Such unsavory biases and rigged investigations are not new. The FBI has a known history of “black bag” jobs and “COINTELPRO” investigations that were highly political and inherently unconstitutional. Now these FBI bureaucrats have been caught acting as a virtual legal defense service for the Hillary Clinton team and something more akin to a Spanish Inquisition to the Donald Trump team.

Since the FBI and the DOJ refuse to come clean, they no longer deserve the honor of running America’s counter-intelligence programs. The function of counter-intelligence should be transferred to the Department of Homeland Security as soon as possible.

RICK REISS

Temecula, Calif.

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The big picture: Where Mueller’s Russia investigation stands – Axios
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Mueller’s web: Everyone caught up in the Russia investigation

There’s been such a flood of stories about who Robert Mueller has interviewed for his Russia investigation — and who’s been charged in connection with it — that it can be easy to lose track. Here’s a map to help you keep every move straight.

How it works: The map starts with the people who participated in key events and the ones who have been charged. Expand this story and you’ll see the rest, including current and former Trump administration officials and the people with more distant connections.

The key events:

The hacking:

  • 12 Russian military officers were indicted for hacking and releasing the emails of Democratic campaign organizations, including the Hillary Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee, in an effort to interfere with the 2016 presidential election.

Who’s not on the list:

  • Michael Cohen. Trump’s personal lawyer has been raided by the FBI, and Mueller is looking into his activities, but there have been no reports that Mueller’s team has questioned him directly.
  • Donald Trump Jr. The bigger intrigue is about why there have been no reports that Mueller’s team has questioned Trump Jr., given that he is a key player in one of the biggest events: the Trump Tower meeting with Manafort and Kushner. (He did testify before a Senate committee.)
  • President Trump. And, of course, Mueller hasn’t questioned the president — yet.

This story has been updated to include the indictments of the 12 Russian military intelligence officers.

Editor’s note: Axios’ David Nather, Lauren Meier, Haley Britzky, Lazaro Gamino and Andrew Witherspoon contributed to this story.

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If Mueller is conducting a witch hunt, he sure is finding a lot of witches
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Who’s been charged by Mueller in the Russia probe so far?

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